What are the risks of conventional irradiation?

Conventional photon irradiation cannot reduce the risks as much as proton therapy


Photon radiotherapy:

  • Does not allow dose reduction to contralateral brain structures, in particular hippocampus, which may lead to cognitive dysfunctions; i.e. problems with memory, attention, speed of thinking, ability to evaluate information, or problems with speech functions. Proton radiotherapy reduces these doses to the minimum.
  • Does not allow the reduction of the integral or total dose of irradiation to the brain tissue, hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, which leads to a higher risk of endocrinopathy, disorders of endocrine glands, and development of secondary tumors. Proton radiotherapy has a significantly lower integral dose.
  • It leads to the irradiation of internal ear structures with doses that can be expected to cause high-frequency hearing loss. Proton therapy significantly reduces this risk.
  • It leads to irradiation of the posterior cranial fossa with doses higher than proton radiotherapy, which contributes to the development and exacerbation of cognitive deficits, including the impairment of cognitive functions such as memory shortages, attention disorders and impaired processing of new information.


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